Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.
Malfunction of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an important cause of morbidity and hospitalization in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of far infrared therapy on the maturation and patency of newly created AVFs in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 or 5.
Randomized controlled study.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:
Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 5-20 mL/min/1.73 m².
40 minutes of far infrared therapy 3 times weekly for a year.
The primary outcome is the rate of AVF malfunction within 12 months, with malfunction defined as either: (1) thrombosis without thrill for AVFs not undergoing HD or (2) receiving any type of interventional procedure due to a lower Kt/V (<1.2) for patients undergoing HD. Secondary outcomes include: (1) cumulative primary unassisted AVF patency, defined as time from creation of the AVF to the first episode of AVF malfunction; (2) physiologic maturation of the AVF by the definition of AVF access blood flow (Qa) ≥500 mL/min and AVF diameter ≥4 mm at 3 months; and (3) clinical maturation of the AVF suitable for HD at 1 year.
AVF Qa was measured by Doppler ultrasonography at 2 days and 1, 2, 3, and 12 months.
We enrolled 122 patients who were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 60) and control (n = 62) groups. In comparison to controls, patients in the intervention group had higher Qa values at 1, 2, 3, and 12 months; a higher rate of physiologic maturation (90% vs 76%; P = 0.04) at 3 months; and a lower rate of AVF malfunction (12% vs 29%; P = 0.02) but higher rates of AVF cumulative unassisted patency (87% vs 70%; P = 0.01) and clinical maturation (82% vs 60%; P = 0.008) within 12 months.
This is a single-center nonblinded study.
Far infrared therapy improves the access flow, maturation, and patency of newly created AVFs in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 4 and 5.
In Taiwan, more than 85% of patients with end-stage renal disease undergo maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) accounts for a prevalence of more than 80% of the vascular access in our patients. Some mechanical factors may affect the patency of hemodialysis vascular access, such as surgical skill, puncture technique and shear stress on the vascular endothelium. Several medical factors have also been identified to be associated with vascularaccess prognosis in HD patients, including stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial cell injury, medications, red cell mass and genotype polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-beta1 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase. According to our previous study, AVF failure was associated with a longer dinucleotide (GT)n repeat (n > or = 30) in the promoter of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene. Our recent study also demonstrated that far-infrared therapy, a noninvasive and convenient therapeutic modality, can improve access flow, inflammatory status and survival of the AVF in HD patients through both its thermal and non-thermal (endothelial-improving, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antioxidative) effects by upregulating NF-E2-related factor-2-dependent HO-1 expression, leading to the inhibition of expression of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.